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Posts Tagged “prix nobels”

(19% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel en chimie qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus correspondent aux noms qui apparaissent explicitement sur la liste ci-dessous.

 

  • Adolph von Baeyer #,1 (1905)
  • Henri Moissan #,2 (1906)
  • Otto Wallach # (1910)
  • Richard Willstätter # (1915)
  • Fritz Haber # (1918)
  • George de Hevesy # (1943)
  • Melvin Calvin # (1961)
  • Max Perutz # (1962)
  • Christian Anfinsen 3 (1972)
  • William Stein # (1972)
  • Ilya Prigogine 4 (1977)
  • Herbert Brown # (1979)
  • Paul Berg # (1980)
  • Walter Gilbert # (1980)
  • Roald Hoffmann # (1981)
  • Aaron Klug # (1982)
  • Herbert Hauptman 5 (1985)
  • Jerome Karle 6 (1985)
  • John Polanyi 7 (1986)
  • Sidney Altman # (1989)
  • Rudolph Marcus # (1992)
  • George Olah 8 (1994)
  • Harold Kroto 9 (1996)
  • Walter Kohn 10 (1998)
  • Alan Heeger 11 (2000)
  • Aaron Ciechanover 12 (2004)
  • Avram Hershko 13 (2004)
  • Irwin Rose 14 (2004)
  • Roger Kornberg 15 (2006)
  • Autre 16

NOTES (En anglais)
# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.

2. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
3. Convert to Judaism. See http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KK/Views/Exhibit/narrative/biographical.html.

4. The Special Volume in Memory of Ilya Prigogine: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 135, edited by Stuart A. Rice (Wiley, New York, 2007, pp. 1-6) contains an introductory article entitled "Ilya Prigogine: His Life, His Work," by the late Radu Balescu, one of Prigogine’s oldest associates.  Balescu describes Prigogine as a "Russian Jewish immigrant arriving in Brussels at the age of 12…"  According to Balescu, Prigogine survived the Nazi occupation thanks to false papers provided to him by the local White Russian community.  For other references, see: 1) the December 1980 issue of Quest, p. 86, in which Mary Lukas describes the Prigogine family’s emigration from revolutionary Russia to Berlin, and finally to Brussels, where Prigogine found himself "an oddity, a little Jewish boy from somewhere in the East"; 2) The Who’s Who of Nobel Prize Winners 1901-1995, 3rd Ed.  by Bernard S. and June H. Schlessinger (Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ, 1996, p. 33); 3) 
http://www.jewishgen.org/Belarus/rje_p.htm; and 4) http://www.amyisrael.co.il/europe/belgium/#Jews in Belgium.

5. See The Who’s Who of Nobel Prize Winners 1901-1995, 3rd Ed., edited  by Bernard S. and June H. Schlessinger (Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ,1996, p. 37).  See also the interview with Hauptman  in Candid Science III: More Conversations with Famous Chemists, by Istvan Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2003, p. 303).
 
6. See The Who’s Who of Nobel Prize Winners 1901-1995, 3rd Ed., edited  by Bernard S. and June H. Schlessinger (Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ,1996, p. 37). See also the interview with Karle in Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists, by Istvan Hargittai and Magdolna Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2006, p. 426). 
7. Son of the Hungarian Jewish physical chemist and philosopher Michael Polanyi.  See also Ismerjük”oket?: zsidó származású nevezetes magyarok arcképcsarnoka, by István Reményi Gyenes (Ex Libris, Budapest, 1997).

8. George Olah’s autobiographical memoirs, A Life of Magic Chemistry  (Wiley Interscience, NY, 2001, p. 45), briefly  describes the last months of World War II in Hungary.  (It was during this period that the Nazis attempted to deport the Jewish population of Budapest.)  He states "I do not want to relive here in any detail some of my very difficult, even horrifying, experiences of this period, hiding out the last months of the war in Budapest.  Suffice it to say that my parents and I survived."  That statement is the closest he comes to identifying himself as being Jewish.  Nearly everything in the book is consistent with an upper middle class Hungarian Jewish background, with the exception of his attendance at the Gymnasium of the Piarist Fathers, a Roman Catholic teaching order.  (Although many of the parochial schools in Budapest had significant Jewish enrollments.)  Further information has materialized as a result of the publication of an op-ed piece in the New York Times on the Holocaust in Hungary, written by Kati Marton ("A Town’s Hidden Memory," 21 July 2002).  This article resulted in a considerable amount of controversy and letters to the editor.  One such letter was by J. L. Jankovich of San Jose, CA, which was sent to the Times, but apparently not published.  (It could previously be found at: http://hungaria.org/lists/lobby/admin/article.php?articleid=136.)  Concerning the German military occupation that began in the spring of 1944, the letter stated: "Yet for months thereafter our Jewish classmates could still attend our Catholic high school and, after the interruptions of the 1944-45 winter, graduated there.  (One of them, Mr. George Olah, now an American citizen, just received the Nobel Prize a few years ago and went back to visit his old school with pride.)"  See also Our Lives: Encounters of a Scientist, by  István Hargittai (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, p. 77).

9. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1996/kroto-autobio.html.
10. See http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1998/kohn-autobio.html.
11. See  http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/2000/heeger-autobio.html.
12. See http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/2004/ciechanover-autobio.html.
13. See
http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/2004/hershko-autobio.html.
14. See
http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/2004/rose-autobio.html.
15. Son of 1959 Nobel Prize winner in medicine Arthur Kornberg and his wife Sylvy Ruth (née Levy).  See, e.g., interview with Arthur Kornberg in Candid Science II: Conversations with Famous Biomedical Scientists, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, pp. 50-71).  See also:
http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?c=JPArticle&cid=1159193371617&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull.
16. Gerhard Herzberg (1971) appears on some lists of  Jewish Nobel Prize winners.  In interviews, however, he has maintained that his emigration from Nazi Germany was the result of his wife (née Luise Oettinger) being Jewish, not of his being Jewish.  Neither Dudley Herschbach (1986) nor Robert Huber (1988), whose names also appear on some lists, is Jewish. 

 
 

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(9% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel de la paix qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus sont basées sur les attributions consenties à des individus seulement, c’est-à-dire que le mode de calcul statistique exclus les prix décernés à des organisations. Parmi les organisations qui ont reçu un prix Nobel de la paix , 25% de celles-ci ont été fondées ou co-fondée par des Juifs. Pour plus d’information, voir la note en bas de page [1] (en anglais).

  • Paul von Heyse #,1 (1910)
  • Henri Bergson# (1927)
  • Boris Pasternak# (1958)
  • Shmuel Agnon# (1966)
  • Nelly Sachs# (1966)
  • Saul Bellow# (1976)
  • Isaac Bashevis Singer# (1978)
  • Elias Canetti# (1981)
  • Joseph Brodsky# (1987)
  • Nadine Gordimer# (1991)
  • Imre Kertész 2 (2002)
  • Elfriede Jelinek 3 (2004)
  • Harold Pinter 4 (2005)


NOTES

# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1910/heyse-autobio.html.

2. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2002/kertesz-bio.html.
3. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.  In a 1998 interview, Jelinek stated "Mein Vater war auch Jude"; see
http://www.hagalil.com/archiv/98/12/jellinek.htm
andhttp://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2004/bio-bibl.html.
4. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/bio-bibl.html. In Conversations with Pinter, by Mel Gussow (Grove, New York, 1996, p.103), Pinter describes his mother and father as "very solid, very respectable, Jewish, lower middle class people."

 
 
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(41% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel d’économie qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus correspondent aux noms qui apparaissent explicitement sur la liste ci-dessous.

  • Paul Samuelson # (1970)
  • Simon Kuznets # (1971)
  • Kenneth Arrow  # (1972)
  • Wassily Leontief 1 (1973)
  • Leonid Kantorovich # (1975)
  • Milton Friedman # (1976)
  • Herbert Simon #,2 (1978)
  • Lawrence Klein # (1980)
  • Franco Modigliani # (1985)
  • Robert Solow # (1987)
  • Harry Markowitz # (1990)
  • Merton Miller 3 (1990)
  • Gary Becker # (1992)
  • Robert Fogel 4 (1993)
  • John Harsanyi 5 (1994)
  • Reinhard Selten 6 (1994)
  • Robert Merton 7 (1997)
  • Myron Scholes 8 (1997)
  • George Akerlof 9 (2001)
  • Joseph Stiglitz 10 (2001)
  • Daniel Kahneman 11 (2002)
  • Robert Aumann 12 (2005)
  • Leonid (Leo) Hurwicz 13 (2007)
  • Eric Maskin 14 (2007)
  • Roger Myerson 15 (2007)
  • Others 16

 

NOTES (En anglais)
# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Genia and Wassily by Estelle Marks Leontief (Zephyr Press, Sommerville, MA, 1987, pp. 8 and 18).

2. Jewish father, mother of partial Jewish ancestry; see Models of My Life by Herbert A. Simon (BasicBooks, New York,NY, 1991, pp. 3, 17, 112, 262).
3. See Jewish-American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia, edited by Jack Fischel and Sanford Pinsker (Garland, New York, NY, 1992), and The Timetables of Jewish History, by Judah Gribetz (Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 1993, p. 713). Who’s Who in American Jewry, 1938 contains a self-submitted entry for the father of Merton Miller, Joel Lewis Miller.
4. See December 1993 issue of Cornell Magazine, where Fogel is described as being "the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants" in an article entitled Outstanding in Distant Fields, by Daniel Gross.
5. Son of Hungarian-Jewish parents who converted to Catholicism the year before Harsanyi’s birth.  See "Berkeley Economist Shares Nobel"  in the October 12, 1994 edition (p. A1) of The San Francisco Chronicle; "Nobel winner was saved from Nazis by Jesuit priest" in the October 21, 1994 issue (p. 8) of The Northern California Jewish Bulletin;
http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/1994/harsanyi-autobio.html; and http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/jharsanyi.html.
6. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see: http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/1994/selten-autobio.html.
7. Jewish father (eminent Columbia University sociologist Robert King Merton, who was born Meyer Robert Schkolnick), non-Jewish mother; see
http://www.kfunigraz.ac.at/sozwww/agsoe/lexikon/klassiker/merton/33bio.htm.

8. In an article written by Lesley Simpson, entitled "Endowment fund named for winner of Nobel Prize," in the September 16, 1998 on-line edition of The Hamilton Spectator, it was stated that Scholes had been active in "Hillel, the Jewish students’ association" at McMaster University.  It was further stated that "Scholes was invited to return home and celebrate by both the city’s Jewish community and McMaster University…The Jewish Federation of Hamilton-Wentworth, the governing body for the Jewish community, is using his visit to formally announce an endowment fund for Jewish education.  The Myron Scholes Nobel Award has been created in his honor." 


9. Jewish mother (née Hirschfelder), non-Jewish father; see 
http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/2001/akerlof-autobio.html.
10. See Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition (Thomson Gale, Detroit, 2007,Vol. 19, p. 226).
11. See http://nobelprize.org/economics/laureates/2002/kahneman-autobio.html.
12. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2005/aumann-autobio.html.
13. See Who’s Who in World Jewry 1965: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, edited by Harry Schneiderman and I.J. Carmin Karpman (McKay, New York, 1965, p. 433).
14. See November 8, 2007
interview in the New Jersey Jewish News Online.
15. See statement quoted near the end of this November 5, 2007 JUF News
article.

16. Ragnar Frisch (1969) appears on a number of Jewish lists. This claim seems to have originated from an entry in the H.W. Wilson biographical dictionary of Nobel Prize Winners (H.W. Wilson Co., New York, NY, 1987) which states that Frisch "was imprisoned during the Nazi occupation of Norway as an outspoken opponent of Nazism and as a Jew."  This claim, however, conflicts with Frisch’s family history in Norway, which traces back many centuries (Jews were banned from settlement in Norway until 1851), and with the description of Frisch as "a devout Christian" in The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, Volume 2, (John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman (eds.), Stockton Press, New York, NY, 1987, p. 430).
Friedrich von Hayek (1974) is described as being Jewish in a number of sources, e.g., From Marx to Mises by David Ramsay Steele (Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1992, p. 401).  This misidentification is due, in part, to his having been the cousin of Ludwig Wittgenstein (through, as it turns out, Wittgenstein’s one non-Jewish grandparent), and his leadership with von Mises (who was Jewish) of the heavily Jewish (at that time) Austrian School of economics.  In Hayek on Hayek (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1994, pp. 61-62), however, Hayek states that none of his ancestors appear to have been Jewish.

 
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Pas moins de 176 juifs se sont vu décerner le prix Nobel.

Ce qui représente 23% des prix Nobels dans le monde entre 1901 et 2007.

Cela représente 27% de la recherche fondamentale mondiale dans les domaines de chimie, médecine, physique et économie.

(Les juifs comptent pour 0.25% de la population mondiale).

 

·  Chimie (29 lauréats, 19% du total mondial)

·  Economie (25 lauréats, 41% du total mondial)

·  Littérature (13 lauréats, 13% du total mondial)

·  La Paix (9 lauréats, 9% du total mondial) 3

·  Physique (47 lauréats, 26% du total mondial, 38% du total US)

·  Physiologie ou médecine (53 lauréats, 28% du total mondial)

 

NOTES
1. Cette énumération constitue une mise à jour et une expansion des informations sur les lauréats juifs du prix Nobel contenues dans le CD-ROM 1997 édition de l’Encyclopédie Judaica (EJ97), dont 117 des noms mentionnés ici ont été obtenus. La quasi-totalité des entrées supplémentaires sont accompagnées par des notes explicatives.Environ 15% de toutes celles qui sont énumérées (et environ 10% des Américains) sont ou ont été, de demi-ascendance juive.
2. Sur une base de nationalité américaine au moment de l’attribution.
3. Les pourcentages sont basés sur les prix à des individus seulement, c’est-à-dire que le calcul exclut les prix à des organisations. Cinq des vingt organisations ayant reçu le prix Nobel de la paix ont été fondée ou (dans un cas), cofondées par des Juifs ou des personnes de moitié d’ascendance juive.

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