| More

Posts Tagged “prix nobel”

Professeur de l’université de Princeton et rédacteur dans le "New York Times", Paul Krugman vient de recevoir le prix Nobel d’économie.

L’académie royale des sciences a déclaré que Paul Krugman "a montré les effets des économies d’échelle sur les modèles du commerce international et la localisation de l’activité économique", ajoutant : " ses idées ont donné naissance à une importante réorientation des recherches sur le sujet ".

"Les statistiques ne sont utiles que si elles éclairent la condition humaine" écrit Paul Krugman.

Il a  montré que l’économie est une science humaine et non une spéculation sur les conséquences supposées de l’équilibre général dans un cadre de concurrence pure.

Paul Krugman est aussi renommé pour ses colonnes dans le "New York Times". Il fut extrêmement critique de la politique fiscale de l’administration Bush.

 

Quelque 170 académiques juifs, écrivains, politiciens et médecins ont reçu le prix Nobel depuis sa création en 1901, soit plus de 20 % des lauréats. (Voir aussi : Prix Nobel juifs)

 

Tags: , , ,

Comments No Comments »

 (13% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel de littérature qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus correspondent aux noms qui apparaissent explicitement sur la liste ci-dessous.

 
  • Paul von Heyse #,1 (1910)
  • Henri Bergson# (1927)
  • Boris Pasternak# (1958)
  • Shmuel Agnon# (1966)
  • Nelly Sachs# (1966)
  • Saul Bellow# (1976)
  • Isaac Bashevis Singer# (1978)
  • Elias Canetti# (1981)
  • Joseph Brodsky# (1987)
  • Nadine Gordimer# (1991)
  • Imre Kertész 2 (2002)
  • Elfriede Jelinek 3 (2004)
  • Harold Pinter 4 (2005)

NOTES
# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1910/heyse-autobio.html.

2. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2002/kertesz-bio.html.
3. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.  In a 1998 interview, Jelinek stated "Mein Vater war auch Jude"; see
http://www.hagalil.com/archiv/98/12/jellinek.htm
andhttp://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2004/bio-bibl.html.
4. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/bio-bibl.html. In Conversations with Pinter, by Mel Gussow (Grove, New York, 1996, p.103), Pinter describes his mother and father as "very solid, very respectable, Jewish, lower middle class people."

 
 
Tags: , ,

Comments No Comments »

  

(9% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel de la paix qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus sont basées sur les attributions consenties à des individus seulement, c’est-à-dire que le mode de calcul statistique exclus les prix décernés à des organisations. Parmi les organisations qui ont reçu un prix Nobel de la paix , 25% de celles-ci ont été fondées ou co-fondée par des Juifs. Pour plus d’information, voir la note en bas de page [1] (en anglais).

  • Paul von Heyse #,1 (1910)
  • Henri Bergson# (1927)
  • Boris Pasternak# (1958)
  • Shmuel Agnon# (1966)
  • Nelly Sachs# (1966)
  • Saul Bellow# (1976)
  • Isaac Bashevis Singer# (1978)
  • Elias Canetti# (1981)
  • Joseph Brodsky# (1987)
  • Nadine Gordimer# (1991)
  • Imre Kertész 2 (2002)
  • Elfriede Jelinek 3 (2004)
  • Harold Pinter 4 (2005)


NOTES

# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1910/heyse-autobio.html.

2. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2002/kertesz-bio.html.
3. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.  In a 1998 interview, Jelinek stated "Mein Vater war auch Jude"; see
http://www.hagalil.com/archiv/98/12/jellinek.htm
andhttp://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2004/bio-bibl.html.
4. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/bio-bibl.html. In Conversations with Pinter, by Mel Gussow (Grove, New York, 1996, p.103), Pinter describes his mother and father as "very solid, very respectable, Jewish, lower middle class people."

 
 
Tags: , , , ,

Comments No Comments »

 (28% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel de physique qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus sont celles qui correspondent aux noms qui apparaissent explicitement sur la liste en dessous.

 
  • Paul Ehrlich # (1908)
  • Elie Metchnikoff #,1 (1908)
  • Robert Bárány # (1914)
  • Otto Meyerhof # (1922)
  • Karl Landsteiner # (1930)
  • Otto Warburg #,2 (1931)
  • Otto Loewi # (1936)
  • Joseph Erlanger # (1944)
  • Herbert Gasser #,3 (1944)
  • Sir Ernst Chain # (1945)
  • Hermann Muller #,4 (1946)
  • Gerty Cori 5 (1947)
  • Tadeus Reichstein # (1950)
  • Selman Waksman # (1952)
  • Sir Hans Krebs # (1953)
  • Fritz Lipmann # (1953)
  • Joshua Lederberg # (1958)
  • Arthur Kornberg # (1959)
  • Konrad Bloch # (1964)
  • Francois Jacob # (1965)
  • André Lwoff # (1965)
  • George Wald # (1967)
  • Marshall Nirenberg # (1968)
  • Salvador Luria # (1969)
  • Julius Axelrod # (1970)
  • Sir Bernard Katz # (1970)
  • Gerald Edelman # (1972)
  • David Baltimore # (1975)
  • Howard Temin # (1975)
  • Baruch Blumberg # (1976)
  • Andrew Schally 6 (1977)
  • Rosalyn Yalow # (1977)
  • Daniel Nathans # (1978)
  • Baruj Benacerraf # (1980)
  • Sir John Vane 7 (1982)
  • César Milstein # (1984)
  • Michael Brown # (1985)
  • Joseph Goldstein # (1985)
  • Stanley Cohen # (1986)
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini # (1986)
  • Gertrude Elion # (1988)
  • Harold Varmus # (1989)
  • Edmond Fischer 8 (1992)
  • Alfred Gilman 9 (1994)
  • Martin Rodbell 10 (1994)
  • Stanley Prusiner 11 (1997)
  • Robert Furchgott 12 (1998)
  • Paul Greengard 13 (2000)
  • Eric Kandel 14 (2000)
  • Sydney Brenner 15 (2002)
  • H. Robert Horvitz 16 (2002)
  • Richard Axel 17 (2004)
  • Andrew Z. Fire 18 (2006)
  • Others 19

NOTES
# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
2. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
3. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
4. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.

5. Gerty Cori appears on some Jewish lists, but not on others.  The most comprehensive biographical portrait of her is contained in Sharon McGrayne’s Nobel Prize Women in Science (Birch Lane, New York, NY, 1993).  McGrayne’s account is based on interviews with more than a dozen of Cori’s close friends and associates, with the details of her religious background obtained from interviews with Professor Viktor Hamburger and Ann Cori.  According to McGrayne, Cori was Jewish, but converted to Roman Catholicism prior to her marriage to Carl Cori in order to lessen the objections of his family, who felt that marriage to a Jewish woman would doom his prospects for an academic career in Europe.  This is in close agreement with the note on Gerty Cori published by Joseph Larner in Biographical Memoirs, Volume 61 (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1992, p. 112).  Further confirmation can be found in the interview with Arthur Kornberg (1959) that appears in Candid Science II by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 58).

6. See The Timetables of Jewish History by Judah Gribetz (Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 1993, p.634 ); Jews and Medicine, by Frank Heynick (KTAV, Hoboken, NJ, 2002, p. 574); and
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1977/schally-autobio.html .
7. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to an interview published in Candid Science II by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 562).
8. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to a follow-up dipatch issued by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA)  several days after publication of its October 14, 1992 story on that year’s Nobel Prizes, written by Tom Tugend.  Fischer is a member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute.
9. See interview in Candid Science II, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 245).
10. See http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1994/rodbell-autobio.html.
11. See http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1997/prusiner-autobio.html.

12. The Furchgotts were one of the most prominent Jewish families in Charleston, SC, where Robert was born.  See http://www.cofc.edu/~jhc/pages/fwfchas.html.  See also the interview published in Candid Science II by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, pp. 588-589).

13. Although born to Jewish parents, Greengard’s mother died in childbirth and he was  raised as a Christian by a non-Jewish stepmother; see http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2000/greengard-autobio.html and interview in Candid Science V: Conversations with Famous Scientists, by Balazs Hargittai and István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2005, pp. 650-653).
14. See
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2000/kandel-autobio.html.
15. See http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2002/brenner-autobio.html.
16. See http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2002/horvitz-autobio.html.
17. See Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition (Thomson Gale, Detroit, 2007, Vol. 2, pp. 755-756).

18. Son of Dr. Philip and Janet (née Sherak) Fire [see entry for Philip Fire in American Men & Women of Science: 22nd Edition  (Thomson Gale, Detroit, 2005, Volume 2, C-F, p. 1154)].  Philip Fire is a past president (1951) of the MIT chapter of the national  Jewish fraternity Alpha Epsilon Pi; see http://web.mit.edu/aepi/www/history5.shtml and
http://web.mit.edu/aepi/www/life.shtml.  Janet Fire is the daughter of the late Rose (née Goldstein) Sherak.  See also:
http://cgi.stanford.edu/group/wais/cgi-bin/index.php?p=5831.

19. Willem Einthoven (1926), whose name appears on several Jewish lists, had a Jewish paternal grandfather, but based on the biography by H. Snellen (Willem Einthoven, Kluwer, Boston, MA, 1995), it appears unlikely that any of his other grandparents were Jewish.  Karl von Frisch (1973) appears to have had a Jewish maternal grandmother: see, e.g., p. 88 of http://www.speciesoforigin.org/FCKeditor/File/Najafi_The_Language_of_the_Bees.pdf.  Other names that have appeared on such lists include those of Erwin Neher (1991), Bert Sakmann (1991), Richard Roberts (1993), Phillip Sharp (1993), and Edward Lewis (1995), none of whom appear to be of Jewish descent.

 
Tags: , , ,

Comments No Comments »

 

(41% du total mondial)

Liste des bénéficiaires du prix Nobel d’économie qui ont été, ou qui sont juifs (ou de demi-ascendance juive, voir note). Les pourcentages indiqués ci-dessus correspondent aux noms qui apparaissent explicitement sur la liste ci-dessous.

  • Paul Samuelson # (1970)
  • Simon Kuznets # (1971)
  • Kenneth Arrow  # (1972)
  • Wassily Leontief 1 (1973)
  • Leonid Kantorovich # (1975)
  • Milton Friedman # (1976)
  • Herbert Simon #,2 (1978)
  • Lawrence Klein # (1980)
  • Franco Modigliani # (1985)
  • Robert Solow # (1987)
  • Harry Markowitz # (1990)
  • Merton Miller 3 (1990)
  • Gary Becker # (1992)
  • Robert Fogel 4 (1993)
  • John Harsanyi 5 (1994)
  • Reinhard Selten 6 (1994)
  • Robert Merton 7 (1997)
  • Myron Scholes 8 (1997)
  • George Akerlof 9 (2001)
  • Joseph Stiglitz 10 (2001)
  • Daniel Kahneman 11 (2002)
  • Robert Aumann 12 (2005)
  • Leonid (Leo) Hurwicz 13 (2007)
  • Eric Maskin 14 (2007)
  • Roger Myerson 15 (2007)
  • Others 16

 

NOTES (En anglais)
# Encyclopaedia Judaica (1997 CD ROM edition).
1. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Genia and Wassily by Estelle Marks Leontief (Zephyr Press, Sommerville, MA, 1987, pp. 8 and 18).

2. Jewish father, mother of partial Jewish ancestry; see Models of My Life by Herbert A. Simon (BasicBooks, New York,NY, 1991, pp. 3, 17, 112, 262).
3. See Jewish-American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia, edited by Jack Fischel and Sanford Pinsker (Garland, New York, NY, 1992), and The Timetables of Jewish History, by Judah Gribetz (Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 1993, p. 713). Who’s Who in American Jewry, 1938 contains a self-submitted entry for the father of Merton Miller, Joel Lewis Miller.
4. See December 1993 issue of Cornell Magazine, where Fogel is described as being "the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants" in an article entitled Outstanding in Distant Fields, by Daniel Gross.
5. Son of Hungarian-Jewish parents who converted to Catholicism the year before Harsanyi’s birth.  See "Berkeley Economist Shares Nobel"  in the October 12, 1994 edition (p. A1) of The San Francisco Chronicle; "Nobel winner was saved from Nazis by Jesuit priest" in the October 21, 1994 issue (p. 8) of The Northern California Jewish Bulletin;
http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/1994/harsanyi-autobio.html; and http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/jharsanyi.html.
6. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see: http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/1994/selten-autobio.html.
7. Jewish father (eminent Columbia University sociologist Robert King Merton, who was born Meyer Robert Schkolnick), non-Jewish mother; see
http://www.kfunigraz.ac.at/sozwww/agsoe/lexikon/klassiker/merton/33bio.htm.

8. In an article written by Lesley Simpson, entitled "Endowment fund named for winner of Nobel Prize," in the September 16, 1998 on-line edition of The Hamilton Spectator, it was stated that Scholes had been active in "Hillel, the Jewish students’ association" at McMaster University.  It was further stated that "Scholes was invited to return home and celebrate by both the city’s Jewish community and McMaster University…The Jewish Federation of Hamilton-Wentworth, the governing body for the Jewish community, is using his visit to formally announce an endowment fund for Jewish education.  The Myron Scholes Nobel Award has been created in his honor." 


9. Jewish mother (née Hirschfelder), non-Jewish father; see 
http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/2001/akerlof-autobio.html.
10. See Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition (Thomson Gale, Detroit, 2007,Vol. 19, p. 226).
11. See http://nobelprize.org/economics/laureates/2002/kahneman-autobio.html.
12. See http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2005/aumann-autobio.html.
13. See Who’s Who in World Jewry 1965: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, edited by Harry Schneiderman and I.J. Carmin Karpman (McKay, New York, 1965, p. 433).
14. See November 8, 2007
interview in the New Jersey Jewish News Online.
15. See statement quoted near the end of this November 5, 2007 JUF News
article.

16. Ragnar Frisch (1969) appears on a number of Jewish lists. This claim seems to have originated from an entry in the H.W. Wilson biographical dictionary of Nobel Prize Winners (H.W. Wilson Co., New York, NY, 1987) which states that Frisch "was imprisoned during the Nazi occupation of Norway as an outspoken opponent of Nazism and as a Jew."  This claim, however, conflicts with Frisch’s family history in Norway, which traces back many centuries (Jews were banned from settlement in Norway until 1851), and with the description of Frisch as "a devout Christian" in The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, Volume 2, (John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman (eds.), Stockton Press, New York, NY, 1987, p. 430).
Friedrich von Hayek (1974) is described as being Jewish in a number of sources, e.g., From Marx to Mises by David Ramsay Steele (Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1992, p. 401).  This misidentification is due, in part, to his having been the cousin of Ludwig Wittgenstein (through, as it turns out, Wittgenstein’s one non-Jewish grandparent), and his leadership with von Mises (who was Jewish) of the heavily Jewish (at that time) Austrian School of economics.  In Hayek on Hayek (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1994, pp. 61-62), however, Hayek states that none of his ancestors appear to have been Jewish.

 
Tags: , , ,

Comments 1 Comment »

 

Pas moins de 176 juifs se sont vu décerner le prix Nobel.

Ce qui représente 23% des prix Nobels dans le monde entre 1901 et 2007.

Cela représente 27% de la recherche fondamentale mondiale dans les domaines de chimie, médecine, physique et économie.

(Les juifs comptent pour 0.25% de la population mondiale).

 

·  Chimie (29 lauréats, 19% du total mondial)

·  Economie (25 lauréats, 41% du total mondial)

·  Littérature (13 lauréats, 13% du total mondial)

·  La Paix (9 lauréats, 9% du total mondial) 3

·  Physique (47 lauréats, 26% du total mondial, 38% du total US)

·  Physiologie ou médecine (53 lauréats, 28% du total mondial)

 

NOTES
1. Cette énumération constitue une mise à jour et une expansion des informations sur les lauréats juifs du prix Nobel contenues dans le CD-ROM 1997 édition de l’Encyclopédie Judaica (EJ97), dont 117 des noms mentionnés ici ont été obtenus. La quasi-totalité des entrées supplémentaires sont accompagnées par des notes explicatives.Environ 15% de toutes celles qui sont énumérées (et environ 10% des Américains) sont ou ont été, de demi-ascendance juive.
2. Sur une base de nationalité américaine au moment de l’attribution.
3. Les pourcentages sont basés sur les prix à des individus seulement, c’est-à-dire que le calcul exclut les prix à des organisations. Cinq des vingt organisations ayant reçu le prix Nobel de la paix ont été fondée ou (dans un cas), cofondées par des Juifs ou des personnes de moitié d’ascendance juive.

Tags: , , ,

Comments 3 Comments »